Source code for points.vectors

"""Contains the Vector class."""

import math
from math import sqrt, acos, pi

[docs]class Vector: """A Vector is a sequence of numbers. They can represent a point in space, or the attributes of an object. Vectors can be added and subtracted with ``+`` and ``-``, but ``*`` is reserved for scalar multiplication - you can use it to multiply the vector by a number but not by another vector (there are special methods for this). :param values: The numbers that make up the Vector. If a single sequence is\ given, that sequence will be unpacked to make the vector.""" def __init__(self, *values): if len(values) == 1: try: self._values = list(values) return except: pass self._values = list(values) def __repr__(self): return "<Vector {}>".format(self._values) def __str__(self): if len(self._values) >= 10: values = self._values[:2] + [] + self._values[-2:] return "<Vector [{}, {}, (...{} items omitted...), {}, {}]>".format( self._values, self._values, len(self._values) - 4, self._values[-2], self._values[-1] ) return repr(self) def __contains__(self, item): return item in self._values def __iter__(self): return iter(self._values) def __getitem__(self, index): return self._values[index] def __setitem__(self, index, value): self._values[index] = value def __len__(self): return len(self._values) def __add__(self, other): if not isinstance(other, Vector): raise TypeError("Cannot add {} - not a Vector".format(other)) if len(self) != len(other): raise ValueError("Cannot add {} - unequal length".format(other)) return Vector(v1 + v2 for v1, v2 in zip(self._values, other._values)) def __sub__(self, other): if not isinstance(other, Vector): raise TypeError("Cannot subtract {} - not a Vector".format(other)) if len(self) != len(other): raise ValueError("Cannot subtract {} - unequal length".format(other)) return Vector(v1 - v2 for v1, v2 in zip(self._values, other._values)) def __mul__(self, other): if isinstance(other, Vector): raise TypeError("'*' is reserved for scalar multiplication") else: return Vector([v * other for v in self._values]) def __rmul__(self, other): return self * other
[docs] def length(self): """Returns the length of the vector. This is the number of values it contains, not its :py:meth:`magnitude`. :rtype: ``int``""" return len(self)
[docs] def values(self): """Returns the values in the vector. :rtype: ``tuple``""" return tuple(self._values)
[docs] def magnitude(self): """Returns the magnitude of the vector - the length of the line it represents in space. :rtype: ``float``""" return sqrt(sum([x**2 for x in self._values]))
[docs] def append(self, value): """Adds a value to the end of the vector. :param value: the value to add.""" self._values.append(value)
[docs] def insert(self, index, value): """Insertes a value into the vector. :param int index: The location to insert to. :param value: the value to add.""" self._values.insert(index, value)
[docs] def remove(self, value): """Removes a value from the vector. :param value: the value to remove.""" self._values.remove(value)
[docs] def pop(self, index=-1): """Removes a value from the vector and returns it. :param index: the index to remove, default being ``-1``. :returns: the removed value.""" return self._values.pop(index)
[docs] def components(self): """Returns the individual components that sum to make up the vector. :returns: ``tuple`` of ``Vector``""" components = [] for index, value in enumerate(self._values): component_values =  * len(self._values) component_values[index] = value components.append(Vector(*component_values)) return tuple(components)
[docs] def linearly_dependent_on(self, *vectors): """Checks if this Vector is linearly dependent on a set of other vectors - that is, whether it is possible to construct this vector from a linear combination of the other vectors. :param \*vectors: The vectors to check against. :rtype: ``bool``""" return self in VectorSpan(*vectors)
[docs] def linearly_independent_of(self, *vectors): """Checks if this Vector is linearly independent of a set of other vectors - that is, whether it is impossible to construct this Vector from a linear combination of the other Vectors. :param \*vectors: The vectors to check against. :rtype: ``bool``""" return not self.linearly_dependent_on(*vectors)
[docs] def span(self): """Returns the vector's span - the set of all vectors that can be constructed by scaling this vector. :rtype: ``VectorSpan``""" return VectorSpan(self)
[docs] def span_with(self, *vectors): """Returns the span of this vector and others - the set of all vectors that can be constructed by scaling and adding the vectors. :rtype: ``VectorSpan``""" return VectorSpan(self, *vectors)
[docs] def dot(self, other): """Returns the dot product between this vector and another. :param Vector other: The other Vector. :raises TypeError: If a non-Vector is given. :raises ValueError: If the Vectors are of different lengths. :rtype: ``float``""" if not isinstance(other, Vector): raise TypeError("{} is not a Vector".format(other)) if self.length() != other.length(): raise ValueError("{} and {} not equal length".format(self, other)) return sum([u_i * v_i for u_i, v_i in zip(self._values, other._values)])
[docs] def cross(self, other): """Returns the cross product between this vector and another. Only three-dimensional Vectors can do this (vectors of length 3). :param Vector other: The other Vector. :raises TypeError: if a non-Vector is given. :raises ValueError: if the Vectors are not three-dimensional. :rtype: ``Vector``""" if not isinstance(other, Vector): raise TypeError("{} is not a Vector".format(other)) values, other = self._values, other._values if len(values) != 3 or len(other) != 3: raise ValueError("{} or {} is not 3D".format(self, other)) return Vector( values * other - values * other, values * other - values * other, values * other - values * other )
[docs] def distance_to(self, other): """Returns the distance between this and another vector, when originating at the origin. :param Vector other: the other Vector. :rtype: ``float``""" vector = self - other return vector.magnitude()
[docs] def angle_with(self, other, degrees=False): """Returns the angle between this vector and another, in radians. :param Vector other: The other Vector. :param bool degrees: If ``True``, the angle will be returned in degrees. :raises TypeError: If a non-Vector is given. :rtype: ``float``""" if not isinstance(other, Vector): raise TypeError("{} is not a Vector".format(other)) if self.length() != other.length(): raise ValueError("{} and {} not equal length".format(self, other)) if self.magnitude() == 0 or other.magnitude() == 0: ang = pi / 4 else: ang = acos(self.dot(other) / (self.magnitude() * other.magnitude())) return math.degrees(ang) if degrees else ang
[docs]class VectorSpan: """A VectorSpan represents all the vectors that can be obtained by performing linear combinations of some starter set of vectors. A Vector is ``in`` this span if it can be constructed from a linear combination of the defining Vectors. This is calculated using Gaussian elimination. :param \*vectors: The vectors which define the span. Any vectors that are\ linearly dependent on the others will be discarded. :raises ValueError: if vectors of different dimensions are provided.""" def __init__(self, *vectors): self._vectors = {vectors} self._dimension = len(vectors) for v in vectors[1:]: if len(v) != self._dimension: raise ValueError( "{} has Vectors of different dimensions".format(vectors) ) if v.linearly_independent_of(*self._vectors): self._vectors.add(v) def __repr__(self): return "<VectorSpan{} - {} dimensions>".format( " of " + repr( list(list(self._vectors).values()) ) if len(self._vectors) == 1 else "", self._dimension ) def __contains__(self, vector): if len(vector) != self._dimension: return False if set(vector.values()) == {0}: return True if len(self._vectors) == 1: one_vector = list(self._vectors) if set(one_vector.values()) == {0}: return False if any(val1 == 0 and val2 != 0 for val1, val2 in zip(vector.values(), one_vector.values())): return False if len(set([v1 / v2 for v1, v2 in zip(one_vector, vector)])) == 1: return True else: from .matrices import Matrix augmented = Matrix(*self._vectors, vector, columns=True) augmented.gauss() for row in augmented.rows(): if set(row[:-1]) == {0} and row[-1] != 0: return False return True
[docs] def dimension(self): """The vector space that the span inhabits - any vectors of a different vector will never be ``in`` this span. :rtype: ``int``""" return self._dimension
[docs] def rank(self): """The dimensions of the space the VectorSpan spans - regardless of the overall Vector Space it inhabits. For example a Vector Span in three dimensional space might have a rank of 2 if it only spans a plane within that space. :rtype: ``int``""" return len(self._vectors)